MS SQL监控数据库的DDL操作

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来自森大科技官方博客
http://www.cnsendblog.com/index.php/?p=1778

 

前言: 有时候,一个数据库有多个帐号,包括数据库管理员,开发人员,运维支撑人员等,可能有很多帐号都有比较大的权限,例如DDL操作权限(创建,修改,删除存储过程,创建,修改,删除表等),账户多了,管理起来就会相当麻烦,容易产生混乱,如果数据库管理员不监控数据库架构变更的话,就不知道谁对数据库架构做了啥改动(此处改动仅仅只DDL操作),尤其有时候,有些开发人员可能不按规章制度办事,绕过或忘了通知发布人员或DBA,直接去生产机做一些DDL操作,那么我们就需要对数据库架构某些更改的事件进行监控,如果能够监控并留下证据,这样既可以让DBA或相关管理人员知晓这些变更,有效管理数据库,也可以避免出现问题,出现扯皮现象,最后DBA成了背黑锅的。

下面就是一个解决上述问题的方案,我们通过创建一个表DatabaseLog和DDL触发器来解决问题,首先在msdb数据库里面新建一个表DatabaseLog,用来保存DDL触发器获取的信息。其中DDL触发器主要通过EVENTDATA()函数返回有关服务器或数据库事件的信息。

SQL Code 1

  1. USE msdb;
  2. GO
  3. CREATE TABLE [dbo].[DatabaseLog]
  4. (
  • [DatabaseLogID] [int] IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,
  • [PostTime] [datetime] NOT NULL,
  • [DatabaseUser] [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NOT NULL,
  • [LoginName] [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
  • [ClientHost] [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
  • [Event] [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NOT NULL,
  • [Schema] [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
  • [Object] [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
  • [TSQL] [nvarchar](max) COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NOT NULL,
  • [XmlEvent] [xml] NOT NULL,
  • CONSTRAINT [PK_DatabaseLog_DatabaseLogID] PRIMARY KEY NONCLUSTERED
  • (
  • [DatabaseLogID] ASC
  • )WITH (PAD_INDEX= OFF, IGNORE_DUP_KEY = OFF) ON [PRIMARY]
  • ) ON [PRIMARY]
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’Primary key for DatabaseLog records.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’DatabaseLogID’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The date and time the DDL change occurred.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’PostTime’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The user who implemented the DDL change.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’DatabaseUser’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The login which implemented the DDL change.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’LoginName’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The client machine on which implemented the DDL change.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’ClientHost’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The type of DDL statement that was executed.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’Event’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The schema to which the changed object belongs.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’Schema’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The object that was changed by the DDL statment.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’Object’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The exact Transact-SQL statement that was executed.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’TSQL’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The raw XML data generated by database trigger.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’XmlEvent’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’Audit table tracking all DDL changes made to the database. Data is captured by the database trigger ddlDatabaseTriggerLog.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’
  • GO
  • EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’Primary key (nonclustered) constraint’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’CONSTRAINT’,@level2name=N’PK_DatabaseLog_DatabaseLogID’
  • GO

例如,我要监控数据库MyAssistant的DDL操作,那么我们首先在“数据库邮件”里面创建一个配置名为“ DataBase_DDL_Event”的配置文件(profile name),这个就不多讲了,不知道配置的,自己先练练手把,假如我需要让数据库把监控到DDL操作变动相信信息发送到我的邮箱 *****@***.com(用你自己的邮箱替代),那么只需要修改下面代码的邮箱和profile_name即可。

SQL Code 2

  1. USE MyAssistant;
  2. GO
  3. CREATE TRIGGER [DTG_DatabaseDdlTriggerLog]
  4. ON DATABASE
  5. FOR DDL_DATABASE_LEVEL_EVENTS
  6. AS
  7. BEGIN
  8. SET NOCOUNT ON;
  • DECLARE @data XML;
  • DECLARE @schema sysname;
  • DECLARE @object sysname;
  • DECLARE @eventType sysname;
  • DECLARE @tableHTML NVARCHAR(MAX) ;
  • SET @data = EVENTDATA();
  • SET @eventType = @data.value(‘(/EVENT_INSTANCE/EventType)[1]’, ‘sysname’);
  • SET @schema = @data.value(‘(/EVENT_INSTANCE/SchemaName)[1]’, ‘sysname’);
  • SET @object = @data.value(‘(/EVENT_INSTANCE/ObjectName)[1]’, ‘sysname’)
  • IF @object IS NOT NULL
  • PRINT ‘ ‘ + @eventType + ‘ – ‘ + @schema + ‘.’ + @object;
  • ELSE
  • PRINT ‘ ‘ + @eventType + ‘ – ‘ + @schema;
  • IF @eventType IS NULL
  • PRINT CONVERT(nvarchar(max), @data);
  • INSERT [msdb].[dbo].[DatabaseLog]
  • (
  • [PostTime],
  • [DatabaseUser],
  • [LoginName],
  • [ClientHost],
  • [Event],
  • [Schema],
  • [Object],
  • [TSQL],
  • [XmlEvent]
  • )
  • VALUES
  • (
  • GETDATE(),
  • CONVERT(sysname, CURRENT_USER),
  • @data.value(‘(/EVENT_INSTANCE/LoginName)[1]’, ‘nvarchar(max)’),
  • CONVERT(sysname, HOST_NAME()),
  • @eventType,
  • CONVERT(sysname, @schema),
  • CONVERT(sysname, @object),
  • @data.value(‘(/EVENT_INSTANCE/TSQLCommand)[1]’, ‘nvarchar(max)’),
  • @data
  • );
  • SET @tableHTML =
  • N'<H1>DDL Event</H1>’ +
  • N'<table border=”0″>’ +
  • N'<tr><th>Post Time</th><th>User</th><th>Login</th><th>ClientHost</th>’ +
  • N'<th>TSQL</th><th></tr>’ +
  • CAST(( SELECT
  • td = PostTime, ”,
  • td = DatabaseUser, ”,
  • td = LoginName, ”,
  • td = ClientHost, ”,
  • td = TSQL, ”
  • FROM msdb.dbo.DatabaseLog
  • WHERE DatabaseLogID =(select max(DatabaseLogID) from msdb.dbo.DatabaseLog)
  • FOR XML PATH(‘tr’), TYPE ) AS NVARCHAR(MAX) ) + N'</table>’ ;
  • EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_send_dbmail
  • @profile_name = ‘DataBase_DDL_Event’,
  • @recipients=’***@***.com’,
  • @subject = ‘DDL Event – DataBase MyAssistant’,
  • @body = @tableHTML,
  • @body_format = ‘HTML’ ;
  • END;
  • GO

接下来我们来测试一下,假如一个用户Test登录数据库,一不小心删除了一个Test的表,如下图一所示,那么我将收到一封邮件,提示我用户Test在那台客户端主机执行了啥DDL操作(如下图二所示),当然邮件的样式、排版有兴趣的可以去美化一下。

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GPS平台、网站建设、软件开发、系统运维,找森大网络科技!
https://cnsendnet.taobao.com
来自森大科技官方博客
http://www.cnsendblog.com/index.php/?p=1778

转载请注明:森大科技官方博客 » MS SQL监控数据库的DDL操作

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